Many things have changed since the first time the public put their hands on the first mobile phone device as these days the end user rarely makes their choices when buying a mobile equipment based on their telephony capabilities. In fact, nowadays these devices are one of the most popular entertainment platforms out there. The main problem for application developers is that these platforms tended to be very heterogeneous from point of view of hardware architecture as well as that of API support. Meanwhile things have changed. While the underlying hardware still varies a lot from device to device the work of application developers has been eased by having cross platform mobile operating systems and open standards. In particular OpenGL ES that is an embedded version of the popular graphics API. In this article I would like to talk about some of the big players of the mobile OS industry and about using OpenGL ES for creating impressive mobile applications.

The first version of the OpenGL ES specification has been released in order to provide a lightweight API for embedded graphics using a well-defined subset of the functionalities provided by the desktop version of OpenGL. While the specification is already out quite for a while, the wide adoption in the industry and the interest of application developers for it became strong only in the recent past. Currently, we have several mobile platforms that are bundled with 3D accelerators and provide a set of features via OpenGL ES that makes developers capable of creating games that weren’t possible even on desktop platforms about ten years ago.

Going 3D on mobiles

Those who know me, know that well that I was always interested in graphics, especially when using it for entertainment purposes. In particular, I was about to develop video games since the first time I’ve put my hands on a computer. This is no different now as well as now I’m writing about OpenGL ES and mobile platforms because I got interested in creating games for mobile phones.

As I’ve already mentioned before, the problem with developing for mobile equipments is the variety of hardware and software platforms that they are built on. As being somebody who is already familiar with desktop OpenGL, having OpenGL ES in the tool-set already eliminates some of the burden that I must face with.

Also when talking about application platform things have also changed a lot. Nowadays, we have just a few big players in the mobile OS industry thus easing the work of the developers. More precisely, if an application developer plans to go mobile and would like to grab the biggest market audience, can limit their efforts on the following platforms:

  • iPhone OS – This is the one that drives Apple’s iPhone mobile devices as well as the iPod Touch. It provides an application platform similar to that Mac developers got used to. It can be said that this platform is the most popular in the industry, especially when dealing with gaming applications.
  • Android – This is the newest player in the field, brought by Google. While it’s a newbie in the industry it already captured the attention of tons of developers. We can say that currently Android and iPhone are dictating the direction of mobile entertainment.
  • Symbian OS – Symbian has the largest share in most markets worldwide, still not that popular in the mobile gaming industry. It is the operating system running most of today’s Nokia phones.
  • Windows Mobile – Microsoft’s product built on Windows CE, the company’s embedded operating system.
  • RIM Blackberry OS – Operating system primarily designed for the business industry.

While most of these mobile operating systems are built on the same design conceptions it is very difficult for the developer to create cross-platform applications for all these platforms as they vary on the language and tool-set support that minimizes the possibilities for code reuse. Unfortunately this is against the one of the most important rule of mobile development as to maximize portability.

It is not 100% true that there is no way to provide optimum portability for all these platforms, but if we choose this direction we are limited to two possibilities: cross-platform Java applications and web-based applications. While these seem to be excellent alternatives to native programming of the platforms, they severely limit the developer in creating applications that fully take advantage of the underlying hardware. This is when OpenGL ES comes into picture as all these platforms have API support thus providing at least some form of code reuse possibility when dealing with entertainment applications.

Now, I would like to continue with talking about the two platforms that I’m most interested in.

iPhone OS

I started to get involved in iPhone game development because one of my friends pushed me to after seeing the great success of his brother-in-law, zhooley who had some great titles. Currently I don’t have a Mac yet to develop on, but already read some stuff about iPhone development. This is where the following information come from.

iPhone is currently is the most important platform for mobile application developers. It became such an important factor in the industry thanks to Apple’s AppStore. Previously there was little to no way for the end users to extend their mobile software base so easily. While this is good for the end user, it is maybe even better for application developers as AppStore provides them quite a large market audience.

The secret why iPhone is an excellent gaming platform lies in the palette of features that the phone hardware and the software frameworks provide. Just to mention the most important ones:

  • Touch screen control with support for multi-touch events capturing the movement of up to five fingers.
  • Three accelerometers for tracking the spacial movement and direction of the device in all axes.
  • MVC inspired GUI framework for enhanced productivity.
  • Support for several industry standard APIs like OpenGL ES, OpenAL and much more.

But that’s enough from the general speaking, let’s see what’s about OpenGL ES support on the iPhones…

As far as I can tell, not being an iPhone owner, the graphics hardware bundled with the mobile comes in form of PowerVR accelerators: MBX and SGX.

The PowerVR MBX has OpenGL ES 1.1 support, that is roughly equivalent to OpenGL 1.5, running a tile-based deferred renderer that is suitable for most 3D applications. That means it has only fixed function capabilities, however that is usually enough for most mobile applications. Also note that it has very limited amount of texture memory of 24MB.

The PowerVR SGX is a more powerful processor that also supports OpenGL ES 2.0, roughly equivalent to OpenGL 2.0, but has optimized fixed function shaders that provide flawless backward compatibility for OpenGL ES 1.1 applications.

The most important thing is still that all iPhones are able to do floating point maths natively and efficiently that is an important factor when dealing with OpenGL applications as the usage of the fixed point types can be quite a burden for developers, especially for those migrating from desktop development.

Additionally, the OpenGL ES implementation on iPhone provides some nice extensions like GL_OES_framebuffer_object, GL_OES_compressed_paletted_texture and GL_OES_point_sprite. Also, thanks to the iPhone simulator that comes with the SDK it is easy to test the application during development without an actual device. Still, one important hint to mention is that the iPhone simulator has different OpenGL ES capabilities than the actual hardwares and also the performance characteristics measured on the simulator should not be taken as valid measurements because the simulator does not really simulate the graphics hardware but only the software platform.

iPhone development is done using the Cocoa API and preferably Objective-C, however C, C++ and Objective-C++ can be also used for development. One just has to interface somehow the Cocoa API and the rest can be done almost in any native programming language. That is one of the key advantages of the iPhone platform that one can develop native applications and no need for Java or web-based solutions.

While iPhone may seem to be a perfect choice for mobile game platform, we should not forget about one big disadvantage of it, in particular that one cannot develop legal iPhone applications without owning a Mac.


The Android platform was suggested by one of my workmates who just brought a Droid. That phone is actually a device capable to compete with the iPhone from both features and performance point of view.

Android is the big hit of the last year and my forecast is that it will be one of the most relevant platforms of the upcoming years. Google adopted the idea of Apple and they also created an open market for the softwares that the end user can easily download and install on their devices. This is the AndroidMarket that can easily become a powerful competitor of the AppStore.

While, as I said earlier, the Motorola Droid, as an example, does support about the same feature set that makes the iPhone an excellent gaming platform, this cannot be said about most of the phones running Android on them. This is maybe one of the biggest disadvantages of the Android platform. However, we can take this also as an advantage as it makes it possible for more phones to adopt this operating system.

As the Android operating system is running on various phones from different vendors with different hardware capabilities, there isn’t too much to talk about the graphics hardware capabilities except that some devices not just don’t have a graphics accelerator but they also lack of floating point support. This is another disadvantage as it forces developers to stick to fixed point math in their OpenGL ES applications to maximize portability or they have to maintain two different rendering paths.

Originally, Android supported only OpenGL ES 1.0 that is roughly equivalent to OpenGL 1.3. However, since NDK r3 there is also OpenGL ES 2.0 support for Android as well. The feature set here varies much more from both hardware point of view and extension support.

Development for Android is done in Java using a proprietary SDK for accessing the Android API. The SDK comes with a simulator that works fine, except the long initial boot time that I was really surprised about when first trying it out.

One advantage of the SDK that it can be used in virtually any operating system so application developers can work on either Windows, Linux, MacOSX or other platform. There is also a nice Eclipse plugin that makes application development for Android even easier. That’s why I started with this one.

Just to illustrate how easy to put together some working demo with a good SDK, I’ve created a simple box rotating app to demonstrate OpenGL ES usage on Android. From installation till having a working application it took no more than two hours. You can find the download links for both the source code and the binary release at the end of the article.

Why mobile games?

I am a person who was, is and will be interested in developing computer games. Previously, I was working with desktop platforms and at the time when I was 10 years old it was satisfactory to put together some simple 2D game but not now.

I had always planned to create a state-of-the-art game engine and use it for some game, like most people like me do, but the efforts of one is simply unsatisfactory to compete with the players in the industry out there. Even if I feel the capability to be able to write such an engine but it would take that much time that I simply don’t have since I am working. Even if I would manage to accomplish it in a year or two then the problem with content creation comes into picture. For an AAA PC game content creation takes several times more than the actual programming and here I even lack the knowledge to achieve it. On the other hand mobile game creation is a much shorter process when you can get to actual results in a matter of weeks that is far better compared to PC game creation.

Also, I would never use third party game engines, except some basic libraries like OpenGL, a physics library and things like that because otherwise I wouldn’t feel the results being my own creation.

Having game development as a hobby works well during high school and university but it gets quite difficult after you are out there in the world having a job and responsibilities. Maybe I should have been already taking my time before to develop something concrete for PC but, as most fellow hobbyist know, you usually end up having hundreds of unfinished projects.

While I would never forget about desktop platforms and I will actively keep myself up with the evolution of the industry, mobile application development opened another world for me where I can unfold myself.

HelloAndroid Demo

Source code:
Binary release: HelloAndroid.apk